- BBC News World
First the United States, followed by China, then Russia, Brazil and Indonesia.
These five countries, according to a new study on the historical accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, Major pollutants Of the world.
The study, conducted by the Carbon Brief Thought Group ahead of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) starting November 1 in Glasgow, Scotland, focuses on the intervening period. 1850 and 2021.
And, for the first time, it takes that into account Deforestation When calculating CO2 output. That is why Brazil and Indonesia are in the main place.
Other types considered include emissions from burning fossil fuels, changes in land use, and cement production.
The change in this system changed the list of the 20 largest historical pollutants.
The previous Carbon Brief Survey (2019) only looked at emissions from fuel burns, the most polluting country in history, followed by China, Russia, Germany and the United Kingdom.
On the whole, humans are spitting around 2.5 trillion tons of CO2 Atmospheric since 1850.
And The United States contributed 20% In total, China 11%, Russia 7%, Brazil 5% and Indonesia 4%.
The case of Brazil
In Brazil and Indonesia, most emissions are due Logging And land use Livestock and Agriculture, Not in burning fossil fuels as in other major polluting countries.
Therefore, according to environmentalists, studies that do not consider emissions related to deforestation ignore the uniqueness of Brazilian pollution.
According to Marcio Astrini, executive secretary of the Climate Monitoring Organization, an organization that calculates emissions annually in Brazil over the past three decades. 80% They were due Deforestation And land use Livestock.
“Over the last 30 years, 73% of the planet’s emissions have been in the energy sector. In Brazil, 55% of emissions over the past 30 years have been caused by deforestation. Brazilian livestock, we are close to 80%,” Astrini told BBC News Brazil.
The COP26 meeting, which ends on November 12, will focus on the discussion of responsibilities for controlling climate change.
At the meeting, the leaders of more than 100 countries will negotiate and try to achieve new promises to ensure that the goal of the Paris Agreement, which keeps global warming at 1.5 ° C, is fulfilled.
Poor and developing countries are expected to demand more compensation from rich countries and show that they have not fulfilled their commitment to provide $ 100 billion a year in climate change mitigation measures.
In turn, the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union will seek to obtain from large developing countries such as Brazil, Russia, China and India. More ambitious duties Control deforestation and reduce emissions.
In this pulse between rich countries and developing countries, the responsibility of each country in dealing with global warming will be measured, in other ways, by its current and historical emissions.
Is also expected Brazil is one of the most stressed countries, Due to the massive increase in deforestation and arson in the Amazon during the first three years of the government of President Jair Bolsanaro.
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